Khamsin was one of the first kingdom-states freed from the Atlantean Empire after the Prophet's assassination. Unfortunately, multiple heirs to the old crown immediately asserted their own right to rule, each backed by various splinter factions within the Black Powder Rebels. Khamsin was plunged into five years of bloody civil war. This war and the competition for gun-trained infantry eventually led to the arming of almost every man of fighting age and made serious inroads into the population of young women as well.
After the destruction of Khamsin's throne-city and the death of most major claimants to the crown, the kingdom disintegrated into anarchy - a well-armed anarchy. Even the Guild, with its eye toward reclaiming lost territories, has mostly avoided Khamsin.